Vitamin A (Retinol, Carotene is precursor)
Needed for healthy skin, mucous membranes and night vision. Found mainly in liver, milk, dairy products, eggs, carrots, fresh veg. Gross deficiency causes xerophthalmia, eye skin problems. Overdose in supplementation can cause problems, particularly in pregant lactating mothers.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamin, Aneurine)
Needed for metabolising carbohydrates into energy in muscles and nervous system. Found mainly in cereals, meat, peas, beans, nuts and yeast extract. Gross deficiency causes Beriberi, tiredness, headaches, digestive problems. Alcoholics may be deficient.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin, Lactoflavin, Vitamin G)
Needed for growth, food breakdown, healthy skin and eyes. Found mainly in liver, meat, dairy products, eggs and cereals. Gross deficiency causes skin lesions, sore or ulcerated lips and mouth. Large amounts may colour urine bright yellow.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin, Nicotinamide, Tryptophan is precursor)
Needed for producing energy, maintaining healthy nervous system, digestive function and skin. Found in many foods, beef, pork, fish, nuts, chicken, coffee, yeast extract. Gross deficiency causes pellagra.
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid, Pantothenate)
Needed to release energy from fats, proteins and carbohydrates, aids resistance to infection and helps healthy skin, found in many foods, eg: liver, kidneys, fish, eggs, whole grains, pulses and nuts. Also manufactured in intestine.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine)
Needed for healthy skin, blood, nerves and hormone production. Found in liver, yeast extracts, wholegrains, eggs, beef, fish etc. Also manufactured in intestine. Supplementation may improve PMT symptoms in women.
Folic Acid (Folate, Folacin, Vitamin B9, Vitamin M, Vitamin Bc)
Needed to produce red blood cells. Found in green veg, liver, kidney, mushrooms and yeast. Needed by precnant women to reduce spina bifida and neural tube defects. Gross deficiency causes megaloblastic anaemia.
Vitamin B12 (Cyanocolbalamine)
Needed for growth and proper formation of red blood cells. Found mainly in liver, meat, fish, dairy products and eggs as well as yeast products (Marmite, Beer). Not present in vegetables, vegans may be deficient. Gross deficiency causes pernicious anaemia (usually through malabsorption).
Biotin (Vitamin H)
Aids metabolism, needed for healthy skin, hair, nerves etc. Found in liver, whole grains, eggs, fish, nuts, yeast. Avidin in raw egg whites can impair absorption.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid, Ascorbate)
Needed for cell growth. Found mainly in breakfast foods and fruit-related products. Gross deficiency causes scurvy.
Vitamin D (Calciferol, Ergocalciferol)
Needed for healthy bones and teeth. Found mainly in fatty fish, eggs butter and milk. Can also be made by the action of sunlight on skin. Gross deficiency causes rickets. Overdose in supplementattion can cause problems, particularly in pregant lactating mothers.
Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
Antioxidant, protects other vitamins fats. Found in meat and vegetable oils.
Vitamin K (Phylloquinone)
Needed for proper blood clotting. Mostly manufactured in intestine, found in cauliflower leafy green veg, liver, fish oils, yogurt.