Amino Acids/DNA/RNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA): 2-stranded, linear polymer made up of repeating units (bases)

Ribonucleic Acid (RNA): only one strand and the sugar is ribose, not deoxyribose


The DNA bases are:


A - Adenine, T - Thymine (U - Uracil), G - Guanine, C - Cytosine


When replicating, two strands of the parent DNA molecule separate. The replicated daughter strands pair with certain bases. The bases are linked to each other, depending on their structure.


A links with T (or U), G links with C


Types of DNA


cDNA complementary DNA

ctDNA DNA within chloroplast

dsDNA double-stranded DNA

mtDNA DNA found in mitochondria

rDNA DNA found in ribosomes

ssDNA single-stranded DNA

The bases in RNA are are the same as DNA, except Thymine is replaced with Uracil (U) which links to Adenine.


Type of RNA


mRNA messenger RNA

nRNA nuclear RNA

sRNA soluble RNA

tRNA transfer RNA


20 Amino Acids are the basis of protein systhesis via mRNA:


Alanine A Ala

Arginine R Arg

Asparagine N Asn

Aspartic Acid D Asp

Cysteine C Cys

Glutamic Acid E Glu

Glutamine Q Gln

Glycine G Gly

Histidine H His

Isoleucine I Ile

Leucine L Leu

Lysine K Lys

Methionine M Met

Phenylalanine F Phe

Proline P Pro

Serine S Ser

Threonine T Thr

Tryptophan W Trp

Tyrosine Y Tyr

Valine V Val

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